Machu Picchu, the "Lost City of the Inkas"

For June 2005, Rutahsa Adventures is offering a trip across the heart of the Inka Empire, beginning in Bolivia with a visit to Lake Titikaka, legendary birthplace of the first Inka, and continuing on to Cusco, the Sacred Valley, and Machu Picchu. A trek of the famed Inka Trail will be offered as an option to the main itinerary. A very special feature of this excursion will be the witnessing of the annual rebuilding of the last remaining Inka straw suspension bridge


DAY 1, Sat. 6/11: Depart US en route to La Paz, Bolivia (LPB); arriving around 7 AM the following day. [Actually, we highly recommend that all participants depart the US on Friday June 10 to arrive in La Paz one day prior to the official start of the trip: La Paz lies at around 11,800 ft elevation and almost all new arrivals experience some altitude effects. It is an excellent idea to allow one extra day for your body to adjust to the altitude before beginning the excursion activities.]

DAY 2, Sun. 6/12: Morning: Arrive in LPB, at one of the world's highest airports, over 4050 m (13,300 feet) above sea level. During the transfer from the airport to our hotel we drop about 1500 feet, and get our first views of La Paz, sprawling throughout a valley below the plateau on which we landed, with snow-crowned Illimani towering on the distant skyline. We will proceed directly to the Hotel Rosario, a pleasant 3-star hotel with a good restaurant, to rest, sip some coca tea, and begin to acclimate to the altitude. It is highly advisable to take it easy upon arrival to avoid soroche, altitude sickness. To preview the Hotel Rosario, visit their website, then use your "back" button to return to this itinerary: Hotel Rosario.

Afternoon: La Paz, population approaching a million, is the de facto capital of Bolivia, which is to say that although the much smaller city of Sucre to the south is the legal capital of the republic, most of the government offices are located here in La Paz, and most government business is done here. We will get oriented in La Paz by visiting a small park overlooking much of the multihued city, visit the Plaza Murillo with its government palaces and cathedral, and then set out on foot to explore the incredible market complex near our hotel. Here block after block of shops, booths, and street vendors offer an amazing and bewildering array of items ranging from wonderful woven goods of alpaca and llama wool, musical instruments, antiques, foodstuffs, hardware, and all the items a well-supplied brujo (witch doctor) might need, including herbs, potions, and dried llama fetuses. You can even buy fake fossils from street vendors.

For supper we'll visit a peña, that is, a restaurant where Andean musicians sing and play folksongs featuring panpipes, charango, quena and other traditional instruments. This special welcome supper and cultural experience is included in the tour cost. [D]

DAY 3, Mon. 6/13: In the morning we'll drive about an hour north to the impressive pre-Inkan ruins of Tiwanaku. This site is famous for its monolithic gateways and giant stone idols. Tiwanaku was the capital of what some archeologists believe to have been the longest surviving empire of all the precolumbian Andean civilizations, flourishing for over a thousand years. Later Inka rulers are said to have visited Tiwanaku and been inspired by its monumental ruins.

Afternoon: Free time to continue exploring the amazing and seemingly endless market area near our hotel. [B,L]

DAY 4, Tues. 6/14: Lake Titikaka is our goal, and the Island of the Sun our very special thrill today. We take a chartered bus north from La Paz to Chua, a small port on thelake. Here we board the modern catamaran Consuelo, which will transport us in style across the beautiful and grand lake to Isla del Sol, legendary birthplace of Manco Capac, the first Inka and his sister-consort, Mama Ocllo. You can watch the scenery glide by from a sun deck atop the vessel, or from within the main salon through picture windows while taking your morning coffee. Breakfast will be ready shortly after getting under way, and a fine buffet lunch will be served later in the cruise. Titikaka, famous as the world's highest regularly navigated lake at 3856 m (12,651 ft), is stunning, and you will be amazed at the extent of ancient agricultural terracing evident on the hillsides all around the lake.

After a leisurely cruise of several hours, we will dock below a small Inka ruin near one end of Isla del Sol (Island of the Sun), to board a boat made of totora reeds and step back in time for a short cruise around to a second docking area. Once on land we climb a steep flight of Inka steps, passing by a sacred spring, to visit the Intiwata Cultural Complex, a very well-done visitors center owned by the same company that operates the catamaran. The complex features agricultural terraces with traditional crops and medicinal plants identified, and where we may see a demonstration of the use of the Andean footplow. We will have a chance to see up close llamas, alpacas, and vicuña. There is also a very fine little museum, a demonstration of totora boat construction, and (sometimes) demonstrations of weaving and native dance.

Upon leaving the visitors' complex we will cruise around to the north side of the island to the Aymara village of Challapampa to go ashore again. The villagers welcome visitors with music, and will escort us through their town to a second dock. Here we'll board rowboats and Aymara men-- small but incredibly strong-- will row us a mile or so along the island to a point below another Inka ruin. Here we'll land and clamber up to the crest of the island to visit the ruins of Chinkani. It is thought that these Inka buildings may have once sheltered pilgrims coming to visit a nearby rock outcrop where the Inkas believed Inti, the Sun, was created.

Hard by the birthplace of the sun there is an ancient altar stone. And here an Aymara shaman will perform a blessing cermony to insure that our travels proceed well.

After being blessed, we will hike about an hour back to Challapampa, following age-old trails and surrounded by the glories of Lake Titikaka in the evening light.

Once back aboard our catamaran we will have dinner by candlelight in the main salon. After supper, if the weather is favorable, sitting and conversing in fresh air and moonlight on the upper deck will be a pleasant past time before going to bed in our cabins below decks. [B,L,D]

DAY 5, Weds. 6/15: We'll get under way early today, to cruise on to Copacabana, arriving there not long after we finish our breakfast. Copacabana, seen here in the rosy glow of twilight, is more than just a charming lakeside resort town. It is the site of Bolivia's most important religious shrine, an impressive Moorish-style basilica built 1610-1620. Many miracles have been attributed to the a black wooden statue of Mary, known as the Dark Virgin of Candelaria or Copacabana, and housed in this great church. Although many pilgrimages are made to Copacabana for many reasons, one of the more unusual practices is for the owners of newly purchased automobiles to bring their vehicles here to be blessed by a priest and then showered with champagne. We will visit the basilica on a walking tour of Copacabana.

After lunch we board a private bus and head north a few kilometers to cross the border into neighboring Peru and then drive on up the west side of Lake Titikaka to the Peruvian port town of Puno to spend our first night in Peru in the Hotel Qelqatani. En route we'll have great vistas of the lake, and we'll visit the interesting remains of an Inkan fertility temple at Chucuito, as well as the colonial church of Pomata with its wonderful red sandstone carvings. [B]

DAY 6, Thurs. 6/16: In the morning we will visit the historic ship SS Yavari (on the left in the photo). The Yavari was built in England in some 2500 pieces that were packed up and over the Andes, assembled, and launched on Titikaka in 1867! Originally steam-powered (designed to burn llama dung!), she was converted to semi-diesel in 1913.

After our lesson in ship history we will boat out to the floating islands inhabited by the Uros people. This small group of indigenous people live on artificial islands made of floating mats of totora reeds. The community even has its own schools on the islands. As a part of our glimpse of this amazing living space and lifestyle, we will see --and perhaps take a ride on-- the traditional reed boats. Be sure to carry some fresh fruits with you to give the Uros children-- a real treat for them.

After lunch in Puno we will drive to the eerie archeological site of Sillustani. Here both a pre-Inkan society and the Inkas built impressive stone funerary towers known as chullpas on a mesa overlooking an other-worldly landscape. Second night in the Hotel Qelqatani in Puno. [B]

DAY 7, Fri. 6/17: Today we arise early to board another comfortable chartered bus to head northwest towards Cusco. The highway takes us along the northern shore of Lake Titikaka for a farewell view of the lake, then to Juliaca, and on across the altiplano, and finally up through a high Andean valley, to cross a divide and start down the Cusco side. We can expect to see herds of llamas and alpacas en route.

About halfway to Cusco we reach the small town of Combapata, where we will turn off the main highway and head up into a little-visited section of the altiplano. About two hours driving on gravel roads that are well-maintained, but which at times will still take your breath away, will bring us to the gorge of the upper Río Apurimac (the "Mighty Speaker" in Quechua). Here, at a place seldom seen by outsiders, hangs the last authentic Inka suspension bridge.

Known in Quechua as a keshwa chaca, the bridge is made of straw and must be renewed every year or two. The rebuilding is a three-day community project, performed the second weekend of each June. Made known to the outside world by explorer/author Loren McIntyre (see McIntyre's fascinating article in the Dec. 1973 issue of National Geographic) this bridge is believed to have been continuously rebuilt and used since Inka times. And our visit is timed to allow us to watch the bridge rebuilding, and to join in the fiesta on Sunday celebrating its renewal. For a detailed description and numerous photos of this remarkable piece of engineering and living history, visit our website keshwa chaca.

Yesterday, the first day of rebuilding the bridge --or, to put it more accurately, building a completely new bridge to replace the weathered bridge built a year ago-- is dedicated to fabricating the four huge rope cables that will support the bridge, and the two smaller cables that make the hand rails. All are made of qq'oya, a tough Andean bunch grass. The reason for our early morning departure from Puno is that we hope to arrive in time to see the great rope cables pulled into place by lines of straining Quechua men on each side of the dramatic river canyon. Each of the heavy cables must be laboriously hauled up and even more laboriously adjusted so that all four hang evenly in the same shallow catenary curve-- if they do not hang evenly the flooring cannot be placed tomorrow. The slack of the cables is adjusted by winding them around a double set of large stone sleepers embedded in the stone bridgehead on each side of the canyon. This should be an interesting process to observe.

Our lodging tonight will be in a campsite with two-person dome tents, sleeping bags and pads all supplied. Our meals will be cooked for us and served to us in a dining tent, and based on past experience, they will be more than adequate! [B,D]

DAY 8, Sat. 6/18: Today is the day the new bridge is finished and we will witness the four main cables being fixed into place with cross-sticks lashed to the cables with fresh rawhide, while simultaneously a multitude of small rope stringers are laced from the hand rail cables to the outside floor cables, forming the sidewalls to the bridge, so that it can be crossed without danger of falling off into the icy river 60 feet below. This work is accomplished by two master bridge builders and their assistants working their way out from the bridgeheads to meet in the middle.

The last stage of the work is to lay the flooring, formed of mats of brush tied together, and giving a solid flooring to the bridge easy to walk across.

The bridge-building activities are carried on under the watchful eyes of a local shaman who performs the rituals necessary for the construction to proceed as planned. Upon completion of the great work, sometime late this afternoon, the bridge will be blessed, and then opened for crossing. Sometimes the first crossing is reserved for special guests, but we will have our chance and no matter how many times Rutahsa Adventures visits this wonderful site (2005 will be our 7th visit!), it is always thrilling to stride swaying high above the swift Apurimac, supported by our faith in a half-millenium (or more) of native engineering and bits of twisted grass!

Although the bridge has been described in National Geographic, the subject of a NOVA program (1995), filmed for a Peruvian cultural documentary (1999) and will be featured in a fall 2004 BBC broadcast, it remains to date little visited by outsiders. It is part of a rural Peruvian world nearly forgotten. Rutahsa Adventures' travelers have the privilege of witnessing first hand the ancient traditions and engineering techniques of the Inkas maintained today by their descendents as a way of honoring their ancestors and Pachamama ("Earth Mother").

We hope that our visits (and the fame that the bridge is beginning to gain) will serve to help the people of the bridge-building communities maintain this beautiful tradition. In order to show our appreciation to the people of the four communities that construct the bridge, we will make a donation of school supplies, children's clothing, toothbrushes and toothpaste to the local village authorities, to be distributed to the children of the communities.

We overnight in camp again tonight. [B,L,D]

DAY 9, Sun. 6/19: It's festival time today! This morning tents will go up, vendors will arrive in trucks and buses, speaker systems and the rainbow banner of the Inkas will be erected, dance teams from towns throughout the region will arrive, and locals in their finest fiesta clothing will come by bus, truck horse and mule, and afoot, to celebrate the annual renewal of the keshwa chaca. And Rutahsa Adventures travelers will witness a colorful and thoroughly Peruvian spectacle. You'll get a memorable dose of colorful costumes, energetic swirling dancers, raucous Andean music (some of which is remarkably similar to Beijing opera!), and pungent smells of local cookery. It's a truly great scene!

After a final lunch in camp, we head back to the main highway, and continue north to Cusco, making some photostops en route to record the dramatic scenery we rushed through to get to the bridge site on Friday.

In Cusco our home will be the Hotel Picoaga, which occupies a 16th-century Spaniard's mansion. To preview our digs in Cusco, visit the Picoaga's website, then use your "back" button to return to this trip description: Hotel Picoaga. [B,L]

DAY 10, Mon. 6/20: Our morning starts with an extensive buffet breakfast at the Picoaga. Afterwards, we get down to learning our way around Cusco with a guided walking tour of the capital and sacred center or the Inka Empire, the very "Navel of the Earth". We'll visit the Plaza de Armas (just three short blocks from our hotel), the cathedral (built over the ruins of one of the Inka palaces), and also the Inka holy of holies, the Q'orikancha or Sun Temple. We'll see the world-famous "Twelve Cornered Stone", located in a wall of the Inka Roca's palace, which the conquistadores rebuilt as the archbishop's palace. In fact, everywhere we walk in the heart of Cusco the tragic conflict between the Inkas and the conquering Spaniards is evident in the contrast between Inka architectural remains and the colonial structures that sit atop them.

After lunch, a short bus ride up into the hills above Cusco will take us to the four nearby ruins of Tambomachay (the Bath of the Inka), Puka Pukara (the Red Fortress), Q'enko (an extremely weird huaca or sacred place), and finally the mighty Sacsahuaman fortress overlooking Cusco. This amazing work is built of truly cyclopean stones fitted together with inexplicable precision. Unquestionably, it is one of the wonders of the world! Second night in the Hotel Picoaga. [B]

DAY 11, Tues. 6/21: The luxury of an entire day of free time! Plenty of time to explore this city on your own, according to your own interests. Yesterday's get-acquainted tour just scratched the surface, and there is so much more to see: churches, museums, the market, art galleries, shops with alpaca sweaters and scarves, traditional native textiles, jewelry, ceramics, books, and much more. There are quaint alleyways to explore, a huge variety of restaurants to sample (some with balconies overlooking the Plaza de Armas make good hangouts for photographers), and people-watching from park benches to enjoy. Third night at the Hotel Picoaga. [B]

DAY 12, Weds. 6/22: Today our group may split in two: travelers opting to hike the famous Inka Trail will begin their trek today; those continuing with the principal excursion will leave Cusco today in our private bus, headed for the Sacred Valley. But there still is a hiking option and a choice to be made about how you get to the Sacred Valley. Those who want to hike for several miles through the Peruvian countryside will hike from Chinchero to the Inka ruin of Huchuy Cusco, and then descend by trail a couple of thousand feet to the Sacred Valley, to be picked up by the bus. You need to be in good hiking shape for this one!

Those who don't fancy that much excercise will visit the colonial church at Chinchero, built on top of Inka ruins and famous for its frescoes. Next, a drive across a beautiful patchwork agricultural panorama, with snow-capped Andean peaks as a backdrop. This will bring us to the enigmatic Inka site of Moray, where giant natural sinkholes have been converted by the Inkas into terraced agricultural sites. Some archeologists believe these sinkhole-farms served as an agricultural experimental station, where Inka cultivators took advantage of microclimates provided by different elevations in the sinkholes. Today the site is favored by seekers of the mystic who come here to meditate.

After Moray, the non-hiking group will be taken to our lodgings for the night, the Hotel Pakaritampu in the town or Ollantaytambo. After depositing the non-hikers, the driver will go to pick-up point to await the hikers as they come down into the Sacred Valley. [B,L (a box lunch will be included for both hikers and non-hikers)]

Day 1 for the Inka Trail trekkers: Serious hikers who opt for the Inka Trail will begin their adventure today, traveling first by train into the Sacred Valley, then on down the Río Urubamba to Km 88. Here the hikers detrain and cross the river to reach the first campsite at Q'ente, located on Inka terraces below the first of numerous ruins to be seen on this world-famous trek. [B,L,D]

DAY 13, Thurs. 6/23: In the morning we will drive through the Sacred Valley to the town of Pisac. Looming above the colonial town is the amazing archeological site also called Pisac, and which many find as dramatic and thrilling as Machu Picchu itself. The approach by road winds up the mountainside, affording views of Pisac's stupendous agricultural terraces, known as andenes, built by the Inkas and still in use today. From the parking lot we will stroll through a section of ruins, across the top of the terraces, to reach a fortified dwelling area, with a view of a cliffside Inka cemetary. From here we will hike along a breath-taking trail, up steps and through a tunnel, then past watchtowers and down steps to reach the Pisac temple complex. By the time you reach the Sun Temple you will be fully convinced of one thing: the Inka people didn't sleep-walk!

After visiting Pisac we will stop for a really fine buffet lunch in the Sacred Valley, before returning to Ollantaytambo.

Back in "Ollanta" we will explore the Inka fortress-temple of Ollantaytambo. This site was still under construction when the Conquistadors arrived, and today's ruins preserve evidence of the construction techniques. In addition to the impressive ruins, the living town of Ollanta is very special: it retains its original Inka civic planning layout of canchas, a grid of narrow cobbled streets separating walled blocks with interior courts. We will visit a home in one of the canchas to get a glimpse of Quechua homelife, replete with the household cuy, or guinea pigs, underfoot. Ollantaytambo is also a good place to see traditional Andean costume still being worn, and hand-loomed ponchos and other textiles may be purchased here.

Our lodgings tonight are at the Hotel Pakaritampu again, so we will have ample opportunity to explore Ollanta, enjoying the town, its history, and the surprising variety of restaurants that have popped up in the last several years. [B,L]

Day 2 for the Inka Trail trekkers: From Q'ente the trekkers begin hiking in ernest, passing by the major archeological site of Patallacta, and climbing up the Cusichaca Valley to the small community of Huayllabamba. Here the trail turns and begins to climb steeply toward the first pass. You'll camp at Llulluchapampa, below the high pass. 9 km, approx. 6 hrs. [B,L,D]

DAY 14, Fri. 6/24: This morning we board the narrow-gauge train that will trundle us down the Urubamba River gorge to Machu Picchu, the legendary "Lost City of the Inkas", one of the world's premier archeological sites, the "must-see-of-must-sees" in South America, and one of those exceedingly rare places where the works of nature and man combine to create a place of transcendental mystic beauty. Our train arrives in the town of Aguas Calientes by mid-morning, and after checking into the Machu Picchu Inn, it's up the zig-zag road to the sacred citadel for a guided tour of the site.

After our introduction to Machu Picchu we will have lunch at the hotel at the ruins, then free time to continue exploring the site until the last bus heads back down the mountain to Aguas Calientes. What you will discover is that most of the crowds disappear as the day-trippers return to Cusco on the afternoon train, but you can remain to enjoy Machu Picchu as it should be enjoyed-- tranquil, mysterious, and ever beautiful. Just don't miss that last's a long walk back down! [B,L]

Day 3 for the Inka Trail trekkers: Up and over Warmiwañusca Pass (4200 m, 13,776 ft), down to cross the Pacamayo river, then climb again past Runkuraqay ruins, across a second pass, to reach camp near the ruins of Phuyupatamarca. 9 km, approx. 8 hrs.

DAY 15, Sat. 6/25: A full day at Machu Picchu! Morning: free time to go back up to Machu Picchu to getting to know some of the intricacies of Machu Picchu proper-- its residential areas, its fountains, temples, amazing agricultural terraces, and a thousand intriguing nooks and crannies. Or, you can take some of the numerous hikes that lead to wonderful places: climb up Huayna Picchu for a breath-taking (literally) view of Machu Picchu far below; the really ambitious can take a seldom-traveled trail from the peak of Huayna Picchu down the backside to the Temple of the Moon, then return to Machu Picchu by a different trail around the flanks of Huayna Picchu; a much less strenuous trail leads to the Inka drawbridge; you can hike along part of the famed Inka Trail to the Inti-Punku ("Sun Gate"), or even continue on to the lovely ruins of Wiñay Wayna (for a small trail admission fee). To do experience a climb few visitor's ever see, you can follow an Inka road up to the top of Machu Picchu peak, where the view makes Huayna Picchu look like a pipsqueak. Also, you can hike directly out of Aguas Calientes up to Putukusi peak for a vista of Machu Picchu from directly across the Urubamba gorge, another view few tourists ever see. Lots of possibilities for today! Second night at the Machu Picchu Inn. Second day Machu Picchu entry and bus tickets included. [B]

Day 4 for the Inka Trail trekkers: Today you descend from Phuyupatamarca, visit Wiñay Wayna ruins, then continue on another two hours to reach the Intipunku, or Sun Gate, and your first view of Machu Picchu. From here you descend to the magnificent ruins themselves, continuing on down to Aguas Calientes to check into the Machu Picchu Inn for a well-deserved hot shower and to rejoin the rest of the Rutahsa Adventures group. [B]

DAY 16, Sun. 6/26: The trekkers get a chance to tour Machu Picchu ruins today, while the rest of the group has still more options to consider. Those that didn't hike the Inka Trail may wish to return to the ruins yet again, or consider other options such as the Putukusi hike, visiting the hot springs that give Aguas Calientes its name, or souvenir shopping in the funky little town. Bird watchers may want to take a guided bird-watching tour on the beautiful grounds of the Machu Picchu Pueblo Hotel; this is an excellent place for bird-watching and you have a pretty good chance to see cock-of-the-rock and other exotic species. The Machu Picchu Pueblo also has an orchid walk. (Note: reservations for these guided tours should be made the day before.) So many options--

Whatever your choice for the morning's activities, you need to be back in time to catch the 3:30 PM train to Cusco. So plan your activities accordingly. We will walk from our hotel to the train station for the return to Cusco and our familiar lodgings at the Hotel Picoaga for a final night. [B]

DAY 17, Mon. 6/27: We'll have a few more hours of free time for last minute visits and shopping in Cusco, but around mid-day we leave, flying from Cusco to Lima, "City of Kings" and capital of Peru (flight ticket is included in the cost of the excursion). We'll check into the Hotel Antigua, just a few blocks from the Pacific, in Lima's toney Miraflores district. For a preview of the Antigua, click here: Hotel Antigua, but don't forget to use your "back" button to return to this itinerary. [B]

DAY 18, Tues. 6/28: Unfortunately, all good things eventually must conclude, and so it is for our Inka Empire Adventure...this is our final day in Peru. We have programmed a Lima city tour and visit to the Museum of the Nation, for those whose flights leave tonight. Travelers may also book flights out of Lima for Monday night or this morning. No matter when your flight departs, you will carry with you a million memories of an extraordinary visit to an extraordinary part of the world. Our guess is this won't be your last trip to Peru...there's so much more to see, experience and learn! [B]

INKA TRAIL TREKKING OPTION: Hale and hearty adventurers with good hiking legs may want to enjoy one of the world's greatest trekking experiences: the Inka Trail. A four-day Inka Trail trek can be arranged as an option to days 12-15 of the main Inka Empire Adventure itinerary. Interested parties should enquire about the requirements and cost. This trek option includes bilingual professional guide, meals, cook, porters, all necessary camping equipment.

For a detailed description of the Inka Trail, visit Rutahsa's Hiking the Inka Trail website.

COST OF THE TRIP: The cost of the trip will vary according to the number of participants and the options chosen. A minimum of ten participants will be necessary to make the trip go. Here is the cost breakdown:

With a total of 13 to 16 participants:

With a total of 10 to 12 participants:

HOW TO GET ABOARD: To request an application blank, please contact Rutahsa Adventures at

                        RECOMMENDED READINGS:

        Beltran, Miriam, 1970, Cuzco, Window on Peru, Second Ed. Revised:
             New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 221 p.
        Frost, Peter, 1989, Exploring Cusco:  Lima, Nuevas Imagenes S. A.,
             195 p.
        Frost, Peter, and Bartle, Jim, 1995, Machu Picchu Historical
             Sanctuary: Lima, Nuevas Imagenes S. A., 64 p.
        Hemming, John, 1981, Machu Picchu:  New York, Newsweek Book
             Division, 172 p.
        Hemming, John, and Ranney, Edward, 1990, Monuments of the Incas,
             Albuquerque, Univ. of New Mexico Press, 228 p.
        Prescott, William H., 1882, History of the Conquest of Peru:
             Philadelphia, J. B. Lippencott & Co., v. 1, 510 p., v. 2, 
	     530 p.  [Prescott's amazing work went through various
             editions and printings, and should be available in major
        Squier, E. George, 1877, PERU: Incidents of Travel and Exploration 
	     in the Land of the Incas:  New York, Henry Holt and Co., 599 p.
             [A classic 19th-century travel work by an archeologist and
             diplomat;  originals scarce, but a modern reprint has been

Photos on this website by Janie and Ric Finch, @copyrighted.